转载▼ 西塞罗《论义务》论述了道德上的善：“正如柏拉图所说，如果能用人的眼睛看清楚，它会唤起对智慧的强烈的爱。但是，整个道德的正确（善）缘起于四个根源的某一种：它要么关心完全的观念和真实的智性发展；要么关心组织化的社会的交流，使每个人尽责，对于确定的职责的忠诚义务；或者关心一个高贵者和肃穆精神的伟大与力量；或者关心所说和所作的每个事物的秩序与约束，于此形成适度和自制。//虽然这四个根源相互关联和彼此交织，某一特定类型的道德责任必会有自身的根源，这依然在每一个单独考虑的根源中：例如，这一类归在我们划分的第一种[根源] ，即归属于追求和发现真（实），在那里我们排放了智慧与谨慎；另一类则是德性的领域。”
He may even add to those thoughts oratoricalvigor, supply what has been omitted, and give compactness to thatwhich is diffuse, since I would not have our paraphrase to be amere interpretation, but an effort to vie with and rival ouroriginal in the expression of the same thoughts。
Book 10 - Chapter5
What sort of composition we should practice; of translatingGreek into Latin, § 1-8. Of putting the writing of eminent authorsinto other words, 9-11. Of theses, commonplaces, declamations, andother species of composition and exercise, 12-20. Cases fordeclamation should be as similar as possible to real cases,21-23.1. THE next point is to decide on what we should employourselves when we write. It would be a superfluous labor, indeed,to detail what subjects there are for writing and what should bestudied first, second, and so on in succession, for this has beendone in my first book, in which I prescribed the order for thestudies of boys, and in my second, where I specified those of themore advanced. What is now to be considered is from wherecopiousness and facility of expression may be derived.
2. Our old orators thought translating Greek into Latin to bea very excellent exercise. Lucius Crassus, in the well known booksof Cicero's De Oratore, says that he often practised it, and Cicerohimself, speaking in his own person, very frequently recommends itand has even published books of Plato and Xenophon translated inthat kind of exercise. It was also approved by Messala, and thereare several extant versions of speeches made by him so that he evenrivalled the oration of Hyperides for Phryne in delicacy of style,a quality most difficult for Romans to attain. 3. The object ofsuch exercise is evident, for the Greek authors excel incopiousness of matter and have introduced a vast deal of art intothe study of eloquence. In translating them, we may use the verybest words, for all that we use may be our own. As to figures, bywhich language is principally ornamented, it may be necessary forus to invent a great number and variety of them because the Romantongue differs greatly from that of the Greeks.
4. But the conversion of Latin writing into other words willalso be of great service to us. I suppose no one has any doubtabout the utility of turning poetry into prose. This is the onlykind of exercise that Sulpicius is said to have used, for itssublimity may elevate our style, and the boldness of theexpressions adopted by poetic license does not preclude theorator's efforts to express the same thoughts in the exactness ofprose. He may even add to those thoughts oratorical vigor, supplywhat has been omitted, and give compactness to that which isdiffuse, since I would not have our paraphrase to be a mereinterpretation, but an effort to vie with and rival our original inthe expression of the same thoughts. 5. My opinion thereforediffers from those who disapprove of paraphrasing Latin orations,on the pretext that, as the best words and phrases have beenalready used, whatever we express in another form must of necessitybe expressed worse. But there is insufficient ground for thisallegation, for we must not despair of the possibility of findingsomething better than what has been said, nor has nature madelanguage so meager and poor that we cannot speak well on anysubject except in one way. Indeed, are we to suppose that while thegestures of the actor can give a variety of turns to the samewords, the power of eloquence is so much inferior that when a thinghas been once said, nothing can be said after it to the samepurpose? 6. But let it be granted that what we conceive is neitherbetter than our original nor equal to it; yet it must be allowed,at the same time, that there is a possibility of coming near to it.7. Do not we ourselves at times speak twice or more often, andsometimes a succession of sentences, on the same subject, and arewe to suppose that though we can contend with ourselves we cannotcontend with others? If a thought could be expressed well only inone way, it would be but right to suppose that the path ofexcellence has been shut against us by some of our predecessors.But in reality, there are still innumerable modes of saying athing, and many roads leading to the same point. 8. Conciseness hasits charms, and so has copiousness; there is one kind of beauty inmetaphorical, another in simple expressions; and direct expressionsbecome one subject, and those varied by figures another. Inaddition, the difficulty of the exercise is most serviceable. Arenot our greatest authors studied more carefully by these means? Forin this way, we do not run over what we have written in a carelessmode of reading, but consider every individual portion, look fromnecessity thoroughly into their matter, and learn how much meritthey possess from the very fact that we cannot succeed in imitatingthem.
9. Nor will it be of advantage to us only to alter thelanguage of others. It will be serviceable also to vary our own ina number of different forms, taking certain thoughts for thepurpose and putting them, as harmoniously as possible, into severalshapes, just as different figures are molded out of the same wax.10. But I believe that the greatest facility in composition isacquired by exercise in the simplest subjects, for in treating amultiplicity of persons, causes, occasions, places, sayings, andactions, our real weakness in style may readily escape noticeamidst so many subjects which present themselves on all sides, andany one of which we may readily take up. 11. But the great proof ofpower is to expand what is naturally contracted, to amplify what islittle, to give variety to things that are similar and attractionto such as are obvious, and to say with effect much on alittle.
To this end indefinite questions will much contribute,questions which we call θέσεις (theseis), and on which Cicero, evenwhen he had become the first orator in his country, used toexercise himself. 12. Next in utility to these are refutations anddefenses of sentences, for as a sentence is a sort of decree andorder, whatever questions may arise regarding the subject of it mayalso arise regarding the decision on the subject. Next standcommonplaces on which we know that accomplished orators havewritten. For he who shall succeed in treating fully on questionsthat are plain and direct, and do not involve any complicatedinquiries, will be still better able to expatiate on such as admitof excursive discussion and will be prepared for any causewhatever. 13. All causes, indeed, rest on general questions, forwhat difference does it make, for instance, whether "Cornelius, astribune of the people, is accused of having read to the people themanuscript of a proposed law," or whether we have to consider thegeneral question, "Is it a breach of the dignity of office, if amagistrate reads his own law to the people in his own person?" Whatdifference does it make whether the question to be tried is, "DidMilo lawfully kill Clodius?" or "Ought a lier-in-wait to be killed,or a mischievous member of the commonwealth, even though he be nota lier-in-wait?" What is the difference whether the question is,"Did Cato act properly in giving up his wife to Hortensius?" or"Does such a proceeding become a respectable man?" Decision ispronounced concerning the persons, but the dispute concerns thegeneral questions.
14. Declamations like those usually pronounced in the schools,if but adapted to real cases and made similar to actual pleadings,are of the greatest service, not only while our education has stillto reach maturity (for the exercise is alike both in conception andin arrangement), but even when our studies are said to be completedand have obtained us reputation in the forum. Eloquence is thusnurtured and made florid, as it were, on a richer sort of diet andis refreshed after being fatigued by the constant roughnesses offorensic contests. 15. Hence, also, the copious style of historymay be tried with advantage for exercising the pen, and we mayindulge in the easy style of dialogues. Nor will it be prejudicialto our improvement to amuse ourselves with verse, as athletes,relaxing at times from their fixed rules for food and exercise,recruit themselves with ease and more inviting dainties. 16. It wasfrom this cause, as it seems to me, that Cicero threw such aglorious brilliancy over his eloquence that he used freely toramble in such sequestered walks of study, for if our sole materialfor thought is derived from law cases, the gloss of our oratorymust of necessity be rubbed off, its joints must grow stiff, andthe points of its wit be blunted by daily encounters.
17. But though this feasting of eloquence refreshes andrecruits those who are employed and at war in the field of theforum, young men ought not to be detained too long in fictitiousrepresentations and empty semblances of real life to such a degree,I mean, that it would be difficult to familiarize them, whenremoved from such illusions, to the occupations of the forum. Thedanger stems from the effect of the retirement in which they havealmost wasted away their life that they should shrink from thefield of action as from too dazzling sunshine. 18. This is saidindeed to have been the case with Porcius Latro, who was the firstprofessor of rhetoric of any eminence, so that, when he was calledon to plead a cause in the forum, at the time that he bore thehighest character in the schools, he used earnestly to entreat thatthe benches of the judges might be removed into the hall, for sostrange did the open sky appear to him that all his eloquenceseemed to lie within a roof and walls. 19. Let the young man, then,who has carefully learned skill in conception and expression fromhis teachers (which will not be an endless task if they are ableand willing to teach) and who has gained a fair degree of facilityby practice, choose some orator, as was the custom among theancients, whom he may follow and imitate. Let him amend as manytrials as possible and be a frequent spectator of the sort ofcontest for which he is intended. 20. Let him set down cases alsoin writing, either the same that he has heard pleaded or others,provided that they be on real facts, and let him handle both sidesof the question. And as we see in the schools of gladiators, lethim exercise himself with arms that will decide contests, as weobserved that Brutus did in composing a speech for Milo. This is amuch better practice than writing replies to old speeches, asCestius did to the speech of Cicero on behalf of Milo, though hecould not have had a sufficient knowledge of the other side fromreading only the defense.
21. The young man will thus be sooner qualified for the forumif his master has obliged him to approach his declamations asnearly as possible to reality and to range through all sorts ofcases, of which teachers now select only the easiest parts, as mostfavorable for exhibition. The ordinary hindrances to such varietyin cases are the crowd of pupils, the custom of hearing the classeson stated days, and, in some degree, the influence of parents, whocount their sons' declamations rather than judge of the merit ofthem. 22. But a good teacher, as I said, I believe, in my firstbook, will not encumber himself with a greater number of pupilsthan he can well undertake to teach. He will put a stop to allempty loquacity, allowing everything to be said that concerns thequestion for decision, but not everything, as some would wish,within the range of possibility. He will relax the stated coursefor speaking by granting longer time or will permit his pupils todivide their cases into several parts, for one part carefullyworked out will be of more service than many only half finished orjust attempted. 23. Such desultory behaviors causes nothing to beput in its proper place in a speech, and what is introduced at thebeginning does not keep within its due bounds, as the young mencrowd all the flowers of eloquence into what they are just going todeliver, and from a fear of losing opportunities in the sequel,they throw their commencement into utter confusion.
Marcus Tullius Cicero，De Officiis，
tr. by George B. Gardiner London: Methuen& Co., ltd.,1899. 可参考
. 论老年 论友谊 论责任，徐奕春译，北京：商务印书馆，